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    • 作者:信息發布人
    • 發表時間:2018-04-19 18:16
    • 來源:未知
    1.Principle of Melt-Blow一.熔噴原理
    The raw material used in melt-blow equipment production is slicing, which is generally polypropylene and polyester, as well as polyamide, polyetherketone ketone etc. However, they adopt the same principle, which is that polymerized substance is squeezed through spinneret orifice in melting state, and becomes microfiber after the impact of high-speed hot air.
    2.Equipment Structur二.設備結構
          1).Air Compressor and circulating Water System
    The operating principle of air compressor: electric motor directly drives crank axle through coupling, and leads connecting rod, crosshead and piston rod, enabling piston to conduct advance and return movement in the cylinder stator of compressor, in order to complete inflow, compression, discharge and other processes.
    Composition: compressor host machine, cooling system, regulating system, lubrication system, safety valve, gas tank, electric motor and its controlled equipment composition.
    Effect of circulating water system: used to provide chilled water for air compressor and extruder.
         2).Extruder.  2).擠出機
    Operating principle: material enters into the flight channel of screw from charge door. As the rotation of screw pushes the slicing forwards, making the slicing constantly absorb heat energy provided by heating installation. On the other hand, due to the shearing action between slicing and slicing, slicing and screw, sleeve frictions, and liquid layers, part of mechanical energy is converted to heat energy. During the ongoing process, slicing is gradually melted as melt mass as the temperature goes higher and higher. During the melting process, polymerized substance takes changes in temperature, pressure, viscosity and form, etc. It transforms from solid state (vitreous state) to elastomeric state. With the higher temperature, it appears plastic flowage, and becomes viscous flow state. The polymerized substance of viscous flow state is transmitted to melt mass pipes with certain pressure through screw’s propulsion and screw exit’s resistance.
    Effect of screw extruder: squeeze, exhaust, melting and mixed homogenization of solid high polymer are conducted under constant temperature and pressure to quantitatively output high polymer melt mass.
    Advantages of screw extruder: ① fast in melting. ② intense mechanical shearing. ③continuous renewal of heat exchange surfaces, more suitable for material with high viscosity. ④convenient output adjustment.
    Composition of screw extruder: ① melting extrusion device: Screw, sleeve. ② heating and cooling system: Cast-aluminum sleeve heater and water cooling jacket. ③ drive system: Variable speed electric motor and variable speed gearbox.
    3) Quick coupling device: it is the equipment used to filtrate the melted polymerized substance, which internal has a round groove to put filtering net. The filtering net should be changed promptly (depending on extruder pressure)
    4) Spinning trunk: the effect of spinning trunk is to promote the chain breakage of polymerized substance melting. Also material has the same flow path and heat energy absorption in the spinning trunk. Finally, die head is squeezed by metering pump in constant quantification. In the whole spinning trunk, metering pump is one of the important compositions.
    4)紡絲箱:紡絲箱的作用 是促進聚合物熔融斷鏈,而且物料在紡絲箱中的流動路程相等吸收熱能相等。最后被計量泵連續定量擠出模頭。在整個紡絲箱中計量泵是重要的組成之一
    Metering pump: the high-precision building-block used in chemical fiber production
    Effect: accurately measure, continuously convey melt mass of fibering high polymer, and produce the preset pressure to maintain the spinning melt mass overcome the resistance of spinning components or spinning jet.
    5) Spinning jet: the internal has two parts of air channel and material channel (spinneret orifice). The top and bottom of material channel both have air channels, and there is a 60° angel between air channel and material channel, making the two airflow collide and form turbulence, impelling the melting polymerized substance squeezed by material channel to become fibre.
    6) Receiving device: a pair of electric motors separately drive optical axle and threaded shaft, reaching the purpose of mandrel stripping by the speed difference between optical axle and threaded shaft.
    7) Automatic cutting device: controlled by time and air pressure. Gas-tightness should be checked before utilization, and debugged to a normal state.
    3.Operation Steps三.操作步驟
    Inspect whether the circulating water system and air compression plant is normal
    I) .  open the switches of initial treatment and after-treatment
    1.Quick change: 200℃-220℃ for about 4 hours (depending on machine downtime)
    1.快換:200℃-220℃ 4小時左右(視停機時間)
    2.spinning box:270℃±10℃ for about 6 hours (depending on machine downtime)
    2.紡絲箱:270℃±10℃ 6小時左右(視停機時間)
    3. Preparation:
           A. Axle: Whether there is electricity, and the mechanical failure of axle, and speed detector is in normal state.
           B. Whether the prepared support and pressing roll is in normal state
           C. Inspect hot air channel
    4. the temperature in spinning box rises to stages 1-5 temperatures
    Ⅱ: 240℃±10℃
    Ⅲ: 260℃±10℃
    Ⅴ: 1#:290℃±10℃
    Warming in stagesⅠ-Ⅴ requires about 0.5 hour
    5. Firstly use heating nozzle of heating ring 10’-15’ to wait for the melting of materials. Meanwhile, use stick metering pump to determine the degree of material melting. After material melting, open the metering pump from low speed to high speed with 400 rotation/minute. Remove quick change strainer filter, and open extruder to start discharging. Discharging is clean, transparent, pure white with no black slag. Add quick change strainer filter, stop extruder, metering pump, and stages 1-5 temperatures, and add spinning jet, open air compressor, blow air channel (add water first, and then open water pump to a hydraulic pressure of 0.15. The hydraulic pressure will be got after opening water pump) firstly open water intake switch, and then the water output switch. Inspect oil pressure.
    6.Add spinning jet, and rack to make level. Apply supramoly. Make the nozzle correct and tight. Add heating rod, plug thermocouple, open air of 0.05-0.07Mpa, open spinning jet temperature, and increase the temperature of heating tank to 220℃-250℃. Then the temperature reaches to stages 1-5 temperature, and heat axle.
    6.上噴頭,上架子找平,涂二硫化鉬,料嘴上正上緊,上加熱棒,插熱電偶,開氣0.05-0.07Mpa,開噴頭溫度,同時升加熱罐溫度, 220℃-250℃,溫度到后開1-5段溫度,同時加熱軸。
    7. Open metering pump from low speed to high speed of 600±50. Open extruder with the pressure of 2.0-2.2. Adjust the height of axle and spinning jet in order to make them parallel.
    8. Open receiving axle, optical axle and threaded shaft from low speed to high speed of 100-120 rotation/minute. Gradually initiate to adjust speed difference until the outer diameter is proper. Through the fine adjustment of pressing roll, temperature, air pressure, and distance, appearance and accuracy can reach the standard. After normal production, install automatic cutting device.
    4.Equipment Principle
    The extruder is composed of feeding section, compression section and metering section. In order to prevent material’s inverse flow, the stage 1 temperature is basically in melting temperature. The temperatures in the three parts gradually increase to make the polymerized substance constantly heated, and transform from vitreous state to viscous flow state in flight channel. When being squeezed into spinning box by screw, the effect of spinning box is still to promote the polymerized substance’s melting chain breakage. Also, the material has same flow path and heat energy absorption in spinning box. Finally, the die head, which is squeezed by metering pump in constant quantification, is formed into fibre through blowing and stretching of high-speed hot air.
        5.Training Program五.培訓計劃
    The ultimate objective of technological requirements is to produce normally and maintain fibre diameter. The normal state depends on the temperatures in each part of extruder and the spinning box. Therefore, the physical and chemical properties of raw materials should be well understood. There are several methods to control fibre diameter, but the best way is to control with hot-air pressure. For example, change 10μm into 1μm and increase air pressure. However, when there is insufficient air pressure, the hot-air temperature or die head temperature should be increased. Sometimes, the temperature of spinning should also be increased. The higher the temperature is, the thinner the fibre diameter is. The larger the air pressure is, the thinner the fibre diameter is. Each raw material has its decomposition temperature, therefore, the temperature cannot be increased indefinitely. Also, the temperature of extruder and spinning box should be adjusted by the variations of environment temperature.
    Inspect the equipment state and product quality at any time. When there is problem, it should be settled in time. The spinning jet should be changed promptly, and regular inspection is required on the actual temperatures of extruder and spinning box. When the rotation speed difference of two electric motor of receivers increases 9-10, the product diameter should decrease 1mm. Every decrease of 9-10 rotation speed difference requires increasing 1mm in product diameter.
          6. Points for Attention六.工作須知
          1).Clarify production purpose明確生產目的
    That is what specification of products will produce. Inspect whether the specification of products on production line require adjustment at any time.
    2).Workers should notice problems in time and make correct treatment on simple problems.
        2) 工人在工作過程中必須要做到能及時發現問題,并能對簡單的問題進行正確的處理。
    A flying yarnA飄絲
    B bump B起包
    Cno operationC    C不走
    Complex problems should put forward promptly and resolved as soon as possible.
     3).Basically distinguish whether the product meets the standard
    7.Treatment Process of Off-Test Product during Production (maintaining fibre diameter)
          1).  Flying yarn: first flying yarn of spinning jet is easy to make the filter element fail to conductnormal decoring, stratification, out of roundness, building, bump, fibre breakage, No operation, loosing core.
    The product appearance of flying yarn of second spinning jet will be uneven flying yarn, uneven product appearance, lousiness, stratification, loosing core, softening, out of roundness, coarse fibre, and roughness.
    The treatment methods of above phenomenon: firstly, adjust the height of axle center consistent with spinning jet. Secondly, shelter the upper part if the fibre flies downwards, and shelter the lower part if the fibre flies upwards (do not use paper to shelter fire). If there occurs occasional flying yarn, it should pay attention to the air flow condition in workshop. 述現象處理方法:首先把軸中心高低與噴頭調一致,其次是絲往下飄用鐵板擋上面,絲往上飄,用鐵板擋下面,(切不可用紙片擋防火)、如果偶然性飄絲時注意車間空氣流動情況。
    If the direction of flying yarn is indeterminate, make the direction of flying yarn same as the direction of axle rotation. 上下飄絲不定時,讓飄絲方向略跟軸轉動方向一致。
    2) Building: if building occurs accidently in normal state, first check the fixing screw on receiving axle, screw nut, synchronous pulley, looseness of synchronous belt, abrasion, and if there is no problem in the above parts, then exclude flying yarn or feed less in optical axle.
    3) Reducer: Exclude fault in receiving axle and decoring. It can be solved by feeding more in optical axle. 3)大小頭:排除接收軸故障和剛出芯,基本上是芯多吃光軸就可以。
     4)Sheath: Do not add many objects in pressing roll. Put the objects near the back with relatively large air. If the outermost spinning jet discharge a large amount, then lower the metering pump.
    5) Black spot: discharge all material of core5)黑點:芯本身帶出的把料排干凈
    If there is abrasion on the bearing of receiving axle, and water too much, it should exchange bearing and water less.If there is belt abrasion in the core, make clear the origin of the black spot, and make it clean.
    6) Loosing core: flying yarn, soft fibre or interlayer between two spinning jets. The pump height of first metering pump is adopted to use the pressing roll to press flying yarn and soft fibre.
    6)抽芯:兩噴頭之間飄絲, 起軟毛或夾層,第一計量泵泵高用壓輥壓住飄絲和軟毛。
    7) Filament breakage: first spinning jetlowers metering pump, and decrease temperature on axle
    The first spinning jetis blocked, and change spinning jet.
    8)No operation: Deal with the flying yarn of first spinning jet   8)不走:第一噴頭飄絲處理好飄絲
    There will be large resistance if the optical axle feeds a large amount. The core should feed lessoptical axle.光軸吃的多,阻力大,芯適量少吃光軸
    Heavy pressure on pressing roll. Alleviate the gram weight of pressing roll.
    Large resistance of cutting filter element and roulette. Reduce the resistance ofdecoring
    Problems in receiving axle. Overhaul and change receiving axle
    Technical problem or initially starting up. Adjust technical parameter.
    9) Lousiness in the core: raw material; change raw material or product; adjust technology
    Overhaul the fibre between optical axle and threaded shaft. 9)芯起毛:原料本身,更換料或改產品,調工藝
    Low axle temperature. Feed more optical axle軸溫度低,多吃一點光軸
    Small amount of discharging material when first spinning jet is blocked, and soft fibre in the inner hole of core. 第一噴頭處堵塞出料少芯內孔起軟毛
    10) Add output: set distance, add metering pump, increase temperature of spinningbox (≦300°)
    11) Add or decrease gram weight: if the gram weight is heavy, if the spinning jet has no problem,change the distance outbound; vice versa.
    12) Stratification: flying yarnblocks flying yarn;Soft fibre blocks spinning jet, and use pressing roll to keepdown and maintain it meet the standard. Others should change spinning jet.
    13) Unstable gram weight: uneven material mixture, and filter resistance, change filter; unstable extruderrotational speed, conduct inspection.
    14)Adjust the external diameter of φ20 small core43±1 (φ20*φ43±1*): the external diameter of firstspinning jetis controlled as 33±1mm in usual production. It the external diameter cannot be reduced, and is easy to be twisted off, maintain the reading of optical axle and threaded shaft, and reduce 1-2 circles to the inner side. Lighten the gram weight of pressing roll. The heights of core, stand, and pressing roll keep in one life to reduce resistance as much as possible.
    14)調φ20小芯外徑43±1(φ20*φ43±1*  ):第一噴頭外徑平時生產控制在33±1mm外徑調不小易扭斷時,光軸和螺紋軸讀數不變的情況下往里打1-2圈,減輕壓輥重量,芯、支架、壓輥高度一致在一條線上,盡量減少阻力。
    15) Turn upfat core (φ28*φ114±2*   ) or (φ38*φ114±2*   ): adjust the external diameter of first spinning jetcore to 78-80. When it can be open normally, open second spinning jet. The speed difference of optical axle and threaded shaftis 10-12. The wheel base of first spinning jetis 170±mm, and that of metering pump should be ≦700.
    15)調大胖芯(φ28*φ114±2*   )或(φ38*φ114±2*   ):先開第一噴頭芯外徑調到78-80能正常后再開第二噴頭,光軸和螺紋軸速差10-12,第一噴頭軸距在170±mm,計量泵不能≦700
    16) Adjust thin fibre to thick fibre: first lower spinning jet temperature. When the spinning jet temperatureis normal, turn off the air (single side) ;When the temperatures on both sides of spinning jet is normal, lower material channel temperature, and turn off the air (both sides)
    17) Adjust thick fibre to thin fibre: first increase spinning jet temperature. When the spinning jet temperature is normal, turn on the air (single side): When the temperatures of spinning jet is normal,increase material channel andtemperature, and turn on the air (both sides)
    18) Out of roundness: flying yarn; adjust the height of wagon; treat the flying yarn with iron plate.
    8. Reference Standard (Pilot) and Rule of Nonwoven Products
    I.Production Requirement:  (According to requirements of task order)
    1).Fibre diameter: according to gram weight.
    2).Gram weight: On clients’ request.
    3).Accuracy of scale: 0.5-100μm.
    4).Diameter:error limits range±1.0mm (refers to effective area,excluding cut part)
      5).Appearance: white and pure color, no stain, smooth surface, no heliciform, no scrap.
      6).Packing Requirement:
    1). Use waterless and clean compressed air to blow and purify the internal and external filter elementproducts to maintain that there is no scrap or flying fibre.
    2). The internal and external surfaces of products should be no stains which is >5.0mm, or bump which is >2.0mm.  (on clients’ request)
    3). The finished product after purification is packed with clean wrapping paper and bag- type heat- shrinkable film. Enchase and sign according to requirements of task order.
    4). No pollutions on finished products during purification and package processes.
    5) . After package, use adhesive tapes to seal the top and bottom of the box, and sign the date.
    6) . Label on boxes. Labels are filled according to requirements and signed with individual names.
    II.Inspection Requirements:
    1. It requires regular shift inspection. Inspectors should be notified when there is special conditions on production line to make additional inspection.
       1. 檢測要求跟班檢驗,當生產線上出現特殊情況時及時通知檢驗員追加檢測。
    2. During shift change, director of production line and inspectors should make additional inspections on appearance of preform body of filter element. Clear accounts and signature should be made on their original records.
    III.Reference Standard:
    1. Length dimension: according to the customer request, the length of each batch’s products should be consistent with error limits range of ±1.0mm.
    1. 長度尺寸:根據客戶要求每一批產品的長度應保持一致,誤差范圍±1.0mm。
    2. Two ends surface must be parallel with a range of <0.5mm.
    2. 兩端面必須保持平行,其平行度<0.5mm。
    3.Error of two ends’ diameter dimension is≤0.5mm.
    4. Tolerance of gradient: the largest gradient on both sides of each product should be less than 1mm.
    4. 鈄度公差:每根產品其兩頭最大鈄度不得大于1mm。
    5. Cuts on both sides should be even, smooth, and have no bump, or damages on mouths of internal or external diameter
    6.Appearance: 6.外觀:
    A: when product length is ≥750mm, inspection requirements are the same as those of production.
    B: when product length is <750mm
    ?. White and clean color, no finger print, no stains on product.  
    ①    色澤潔白干凈,無手印,產品不允許有污點。 
    ?. Smooth surface, no heliciform, no bumps >2.0mm (on client’s requests).
    ②    表面光滑,無螺旋狀,無>2.0mm的凹凸包(可視客戶要求而定)。
    ?Do not allow exceeding requirements during production process.Stains or non-compliant
    products are transferred to the next order after cutting.
    ③      堅決杜絕在生產過程中出現超包(超過要求)、污點或不符合規定的產品被裁切后轉入下一工序。
    ④      Do not allow transferring polluted products to next order during cutting.
    IVInspection Rules:
    Adopt the combination of first inspection by inspection department and self-inspection by production department.
    1. First inspection: select billet of two filter elements randomly to cut into products, and make inspection
    1. 首檢:任意抽2根濾芯壞料裁切成產品由檢驗
    Inspections are conducted according to the above requirements. After inspection, mark qualification label. Batch cutting is made with finished products in first inspection as example.Production department keeps examples of first inspection, and finished cutting products are transferred to next order.
     2.Self-inspection: staff in production department conduct processing and inspection strictly according to the above requirements during cutting process.
    3.Inspectors are responsible for all outgoing product and inspections of all products.
    Note: on clients’ requests:
    ①             When delivering production task order, mark out scale accuracy, internal and external fibre diameters, and gram weight.
    ②             Compounding ratio of supplement in filter element should be clear.
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